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Hier findest Du eine Übersicht über alle Studien, die wir als Grundlage für unsere Artikel verwendet und zitiert haben.


World Health Organization: A prospective multicenter trial of the ovulation method of natural family planning. II. The effectiveness phase. Fertil Steril 1981; 36: 591-598


Denny, E.: Women’s experience of endometriosis. Journal of advanced nursing, 46 (6). 2004.
Nagele, F.: Endometriose – ein unterschätztes Leid? Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie 2009 (3).
Brandes, I. et al.: Evaluation eines Schulungsprogramms für Patientinnen mit Endometriose. EVA-Studie. 2008, 2010.
Müller, C.: Untersuchung zur Sexualität und Beckenbodenfunktion bei Patientinnen mit rektovaginaler Endometriose vor und nach einer operativen Rektumteilresektion. Rüdersdorf b. Berlin 2013.
Troyer, M. R.: Differential diagnosis of endometriosis in a young adult woman with nonspecific low back pain. Physical Therapy. 2007 (87).
The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine: Endometriosis and infertility: a committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility Vol. 98, No. 3. 2012.
Jones G. et al.: The impact of endometriosis upon quality of life: a qualitative analysis. Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology, 25 (2), 2004.
Kaiser, B. und Korell, M.: Ergebnisse der Ernährungsberatung bei Frauen mit Endometriose. Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie 2008 (2).
Jacobson T. Z. et al.: Laparoscopic surgery for subfertility associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Jan 20, (1). 2010.
Schindler, A. E.: Operative und medikamentöse Therapie der Endometriose/Adenomyose. J Gynäkol Endokrinol. 18, S. 18–26. 2008.
Husby, G. K. et al.: Diagnostic delay in women with pain and endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 82, S. 649–653. 2003.

Fruchtbarkeit steigern

Ross C. et al.: A systematic review of the effect of oral antioxidants on male infertility. Reproductive Biomedicine Online. Jun;20(6):711-723. 2010.
Lerchbaum, E. and Obermayer-Pietsch, B.: Vitamin D and fertility: a systematic review. European Journal of Endocrinology. Volume 166, Issue 5, (S. 765-78). 2012.
Lenzi, A. et al.: Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Fertil Steril. Feb;79(2):292-300. 2003.
Schmid, Th. et al.: Micronutrients intake is associated with improved sperm DNA quality in older men, Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 98. 2012.
West, M. C. et al.: Dietary oestrogens and male fertility potential. Human Fertility, Vol. 8. 2005.
Levitas, E. et al.: Relationship between the duration of sexual abstinence and semen quality: analysis of 9.489 semen samples. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 83. 2005.
Künzle, R. et al.: Semen quality of male smokers and nonsmokers in infertile couples. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 79. 2003.
Chia S. E. et al.:Factors associated with male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 240 fertile men. BJOG, Vol. 107. 2000.
Sobreiro B. P. et al.: Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake. Sao Paulo Med. 123(4):161-166. 2005.
Schmid, T. E. et al: The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers. Human Reproduction. Vol. 22, Issue 1, p. 180-187. 2006.
Jensen, K. et al.: Habitual alcohol consumption associated with reduced semen quality and changes in reproductive hormones; a cross-sectional study Amor 1221 young Danish men. BMJ Open. 2014.
Jensen, T. K. et al: Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1558 Danish men. Fertilität and Sterilität, Vol. 82. 2004.
Vaamonde, D. et al.: Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 112. 2012.
Vaamonde, D. et al: Response of semen parameters to three training modalities. Fertility Sterility, Vol. 92. 2009.
Jacobi, H.: Rückgang der Spermienqualität in Deutschland und Europa. Bremen. 1999.
Zhang, X. Z. et al: Seasonal variation in semen quality in China. Andrology. Jul; 1 (4), p. 639-643. 2013
Janevic, T. et al: Effects of work and life stress on semen quality. Fertility Sterility. Aug; 102 (2), p. 530-538. 2014.

Geburtstermin und Schwangerschaftswoche berechnen

Jukic, A. M. et al: Length of human pregnancy and contributors to its natural variation. Hum Reprod. Oct; 28(10): 2848–2855. 2013.
Weiss E. et al.: Fetal mortality at and beyond term in singleton pregnancies in Germany 2004-2009: Comparison with international studies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013.


Bergmann, J. S.: Die Wirksamkeit des Komplexmittels Phyto Hypophyson L bei weiblicher, hormonell bedingter Sterilität – Eine randomisierte Doppelblindstudie. heiDOK. 2001.
Westphal, L. M. et al.: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Fertilityblend: a nutritional supplement for improving fertility in women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 33(4):205-208. 2006.
Frank-Herrmann, P. et al.: Zyklusverhalten nach Absetzen von oralen Kontrazeptiva. J Reproduktionsmed Endokrinol. 2006.

Hashimoto erkennen und Beschwerden mildern

Evert Cornelis van Leersum: Contribution to the history of the simple enlargement of the thyroid gland. Janus. 29, 1925, S. 282–289.


Aleknaviciute, J. et al.: The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device potentiates stress reactivity.
Daud, S. and Ewies, A. A. A.: Continuation rate and reasons of early removal of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Endocrine Abstracts. 12, p. 93. 2006.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017 Jun;80:39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.02.025. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
Halmesmäki, K. et al.: The effect of hysterectomy or levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine system on sexual functioning among women with menorrhagia: a 5-year randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 114:563–8. 2007.
Lidegaard, O. et al.: Venous thrombosis in users of non-oral hormonal contraception: follow-up study. BMJ. 344. 2012.
Skovlund, C. W. et al.: Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(11):1154-1162. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.2387

Kann ich nach Absetzen der Pille schwanger werden?

Bracken, M. B. et al.: Conception delay after oral contraceptive use: the effect of estrogen dose. Fertility and sterility. 1990 Jan.; 53(1):21-7
Farrow, A. et al.: Prolonged use of oral contraception before a planned pregnancy is associated with a decreased risk of delayed conception. Human Reproduction Vol. 17, No. 10 pp. 2754–2761, 2002

Migräne mit Aura

Rocca, M. A. et al.: Brain Gray Matter Changes in Migraine Patients With T2-Visible Lesions. Stroke, Juli 2006.
Evans, R. W.:The Clinical Features of Migraine With and Without Aura. Updates on the clinical features of migraine, especially migraine with aura. Practical Neurology, April 2014.
WHO: Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. Fifth Edition, 2015. Abgerufen am 21. September 2016 auf
Deutsche Migräne- und Kopfschmerzgesellschaft: Antibabypille bei Migränepatientinnen ohne Aura – kein gesteigertes Risiko für Schlaganfall oder Herzinfarkt! Abgerufen am 21. September 2016 auf
Koch, E.-M.: Neurologische Erkrankungen: Migräne mit Aura. Abgerufen am 21. September 2016 auf


O’Herlihy, C.: Preovulatory follicular size: A comparison of ultrasound and laparoscopic measurements. Fertil Steril, 34: 24-6. 1980.
Kerin, J. F. et al.: Morphological and functional relations of Graafian follicle growth to ovulation in women using ultrasonic, laparoscopic and biochemical measurements. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 88: 81-90. 1981.
Hann, L. E. et al.: Mittelschmerz. Sonographic demonstration. JAMA. 241: 2731-2732. 1979.

Natürliche Verhütung

Gnoth, C. et al.: Time to pregnancy: results of the German prospective study and impact on the management of infertility. Human Reproduction 18: 1959–66. 2003.

Nebenwirkungen Pille

Stegmann, B. H. et al.: Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: Systematik review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013.
European Medicines Agency: Assessment report for combined hormonal contraceptives containing medicinal products. London 2014.
Zethraeus, N. et al.: A first-choice combined oral contraceptive influences general well-being in healthy women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertility and Sterility. Vol. 107, Issue 5, p. 1238-1245. 2017.
Radke, S. and Derntl, B.: Affective responsiveness is influenced by intake of oral contraceptives. European Neuropsychopharmacology. Vol. 26, Issue 6, p. 1014-1019. 2016.
Skovlund, C. W.: Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression. JAMA Psychiatry. 28. September 2016.
Burkman, R. et al: Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 190(4 Suppl): 5–22.
Appleby, P. et al.: Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data for 16,573 women with cervical cancer and 35,509 women without cervical cancer from 24 epidemiological studies. Lancet, Vol. 10. 2007.
Kumle, L. et al.: Use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk: The Norwegian-Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev., Vol. 11, Issue 11. 2002.
Althuis, M. D. et al.: Hormonal content and potency of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among young women. Br J Cancer, Vol. 88, Issue 1. 2003.
International Agency for Research on Cancer: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 91. 2007.
Battaglia, C. et al.: Sexual behavior and oral contraception: a pilot study. Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol. 9, Issue 2. 2012.
Goldstein, I. and Panzer, C.: Can taking the pill dull a woman’s desire forever? New Scientist. 27 May 2005.
Wallwiener, C. W. et al.: Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and Impact of Contraception in Female German Medical Students. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Vol. 7, Issue 6, 2010.
Hirschberg, A. L.: Sex Hormone, appetite and eating behaviour in women. Vol. 71, Issue 3, 2012.
Aegidius, K. et al.: Oral contraceptives and increased headache prevalence: the Head-HUNT Study. Neurology. Vol. 66, Issue 3, p. 349-353. 2006.
WHO: Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. Fifth Edition. Geneva 2015.
Petersen, N. et al.: Oral contraceptive pill use is associated with localized decreases in cortical thickness. Hum. Brain Mapp. 2015.
Kroll, R. et al.: The efficacy and safety of a low-dose, 91-day, extended-regimen oral contraceptive with continuous ethinyl estradiol. Contraception. 2010.
Pressemitteilung der U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): „FDA approves contraceptive for continous use“.
Edelman, A. et al.: Continuous versus cyclic use of combined oral contraceptives for contraception: systematic Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials. Hum. Reprod., Vol. 21 (3). 2006.
Huber, J. and Walch, K.: Treating acne with oral contraceptives: use of lower doses. Contraception, Vol. 73, Issue 1. 2006.
Frank-Hermann, P. et al.: Zyklusverhalten nach Absetzen von oralen Kontrazeptiva. J. Reproduktionsmed. Endokrinol, Vol. 3. 2006.
Trussell, J.: Emergency contraception: WHO Task Force study. Lancet. Vol. 352, Issue 9135. p. 1222-1223. 1998.
Jern, P.: A high-powered replication study finds no effect of starting or stopping hormonal contraceptive use on relationship quality. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 39, Issue 4, p. 373-379. July 2018.
Wessel Skovlund, C. et al.: Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Nov 2017.


Schöfl, C. et al.: Polyzystisches Ovarialsyndrom und Insulinresistenz. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2004, 101(6): A-346 / B-294 / C-287
The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. (revised 2003) Consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Human Reproduction, 19, 41-47.
Polson D. W. et al.: Polycystic ovaries – a common finding in normal women. Lancet 1988; 1: 870–872
Ärzteblatt: PCOS: Letrozol erhöht Chance auf Schwangerschaft
Legro, R. S. et al.: Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl JMed 2014; 371:119–129
Bird, S. T. et al.: Risk of venous thromboembolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based matched cohort analysis. CMAJ, 3. Dezember 2012

Pillenreport 2015

Boeschen, D. et al.: Pillenreport 2015 – Ein Statusbericht zu oralen Kontrazeptiva, Bremen 2015.
Lidegaard, O. et al:. Venous thrombosis in users of non-oral hormonal contraception: follow-up study. BMJ. 344. 2012


Huffman, J. W.: The gynecology of childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics. Vol. 43, Issue 2. 1968.
Robson, P.: Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178(2), 107-115.
Sundell, G. et al.: Factors influencing the prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhoea in young women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, Vol. 97, Issue 7, p. 588-94. 1990.

Schwanger während Periode?

Fehring, R. J. et al.: Variability in the phases of the menstrual cycle. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. Vol. 35: p. 376-84. 2006.

Schwanger werden

Colombo, B. and Masarotto, G.: Daily Fecundability: First Results from a New Data Base. Demographic Research, Vol. 3, Art. 5. 2000.
Dunson, D. B., Colombo, B. and Baird D. D.: Changes with age in the level and duration of fertility in the menstrual cycle. Human Reprod 17. 2002.
Fujimoto, V. Y. et al.: Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in women may adversely influence oocyte quality during in vitro fertilization. Fertility and Sterility. Vol. 95, Issue 5, p. 1816-1819. 2011.
Gnoth, C. et al.: Definition and prevalence of subfertility and infertility. Hum Reprod, Vol. 20, p. 1144-1147. 2005.
Lathi, R. B. et al.: Conjugated bisphenol A in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk. Fertility and Sterility. Vol. 102, Issue 1, p. 123-128. 2014.
Mills, J. L. et al.: Delayed conception in women with low-urinary iodine concentrations: a population-based prospective cohort study. Human Reproduction, Volume 33, Issue 3, pages 426–433. March 2018.
Sperling, H.: Therapy for infertile couples. Urologe A. 2005. 44(10). P. 1147-53.
Wyss, P. et al.: Relevance of the miscarriage-new pregnancy interval. J Perinat Med., Vol. 22, Issue 3, p. 235-241. 1994.

Schwanger werden nach Fehlgeburt

Wyss, P. et al.: Relevance of the miscarriage-new pregnancy interval. J Perinat Med., Vol. 22, Issue 3, p. 235-241. 1994.
Daiter, E.: Recurrent Miscarriage (Pregnancy Loss). The Lancet, Volume 336, Issue 8716, Pages 641-698 (15 September 1990)
Bhattacharya, S. et al.: Research Effect of interpregnancy interval on outcomes of pregnancy after miscarriage: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics in Scotland. BMJ, 2010;341:c3967

Schwanger werden nach Pille

Farrow, A. et al.: Prolonged use of oral contraception before a planned pregnancy is associated with a decreased risk of delayed conception. Human Reproduction Vol. 17, No. 10 pp. 2754–2761, 2002
Bracken, M. B. et al.: Conception delay after oral contraceptive use: the effect of estrogen dose. Fertility and sterility. 1990 Jan.; 53(1):21-7

Starke Regelblutung

Draths, R.: «Meine Mens: zu häufig, zu stark!» Blutungsstörungen im jugendlichen Alter. Gynäkologie 4/2009
Stute, P.: Abnorme uterine Blutung. Gynäkologische Endokrinol. 10, 197-209 (2012)

Thrombose und Thrombophilie

De Stefano et al.: The risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis among heterozygous carriers of both factor V Leiden and the G20210A prothrombin mutation. N Engl J Med. Vol. 341. 1999.
Martinelli, I.: Risk factors in venous thromboembolism. Thromb Haemost, Vol. 86. 2001.
Abdollahi, M. et al.: Obesity: risk of venous thrombosis and the interaction with coagulation factor levels and oral contraceptive use. Thromb Haemost. Vol. 89. 2003.
Vandenbroucke et al.: Increased risk of venous thrombosis in oral-contraceptive users who are carriers of factor V Leiden Mutation. Lancet. Vol. 344. 1994.
Wu et al.: Thromb Haemost. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, thrombophilias and risk of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review. Vol. 94. 2005

Unerfüllter Kinderwunsch

Dunson D. B. et al.: Changes with age in the level and duration of fertility in the menstrual cycle. Human Reprod. Vol. 17, 2002.
Van Die, M. D. et al.: Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials. Planta Med. Vol. 79, 2013.
Zegers-Hochschild, F. et al.: International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) revised glossary of ART terminology, 2009. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 92. 2009.

Übelkeit in der Schwangerschaft

Hinkle, S. N. et al.: Association of Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy With Pregnancy Loss – A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med., 176 (11), p. 1621-1627. 2016
Borrelli, F. et al.: Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstetics and Gynecolology. Apr, 105(4), p. 849 – 856. 2005.
Smith C. et al.: Acupuncture to treat nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial Birth. 29 (1), p. 1-9. 2002.
Carlsson, C. P. et al.: Manual acupuncture reduces hyperemesis gravidarum: a placebo-controlled, randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Journal of Pain Symptom Management. Oct; 20 (4), p. 273 – 279. 2000.
Festin, M.: Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Clinical Evidence 15 (1-2), 1-13. 2006.
Louik, C. et al.: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: maternal characteristics and risk factors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 20, 270-278. 2006.
Mylonas, I. et al.: Erbrechen in der Schwangerschaft/Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2007; 104(25): A-1821 / B-1604 / C-1544.

Vegan leben

McCarty, M. F.: Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity. Med Hypotheses. Vol. 53, 1999.
Leitzmann, C. et al.: Vegetarische Ernährung. Eine Ernährungsweise mit Zukunft.

Verhütung für den Mann

Miyata, H. et al.: Sperm calcineurin inhibition prevents mouse fertility with implications for male contraceptive. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2015.
Waller, D. et al.: Azoospermia in rabbits following an intravas injection of Vasalgel. Basic and Clinical Andrology. 30 March 2016.


Roney, J. R. and Simmons, Z. L.: Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles. Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 63. 2013.
Felizi, N. and Varon, J.: MENSTRUAPPS – How to turn your period into money (for others). Studie 2018.

Vorteile und Risiken einer späten Schwangerschaft

Kramer, M. S. et al.: Amniotic-fluid embolism and medical induction of labour: a retrospective, population-based cohort study. Lancet. 368, S. 1444–1448, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69607-4.2006.
Dunson, D. B. et al.: Changes with age in the level and duration of fertility in the menstrual cycle. Human Reprod. Volume 17. 2002.


Ecochard et al.: Chronoligical aspects of ultrasonic, hormonal, and other indirect indices of ovulation. BJOG. 108: 822-829. 2001.
World Health Organization: Temporal relationship between indices of the fertile period. Fertil Steril. 39: 647-655. 1983.

Zyklusphasen und Haut

Adebamowo, c. A. et al.: High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Feb;52(2):207-14.